Monday, April 20, 2015

New-Onset Diabetes After Transplantation: Results From a Double-Blind Early Corticosteroid Withdrawal Trial

AJT - Early New-Onset Diabetes After Transplantation: Results From a Double-Blind Early Corticosteroid Withdrawal Trial

New-onset diabetes after transplantation (NODAT) is an important complication following kidney transplantation. Data from the 5-year early steroid withdrawal double-blind randomized trial were analyzed to determine if steroid avoidance reduced the NODAT risk. Incidence, timing and risk factors for NODAT were evaluated using eight definitions. By American Diabetes Association definition, 36.3% of patients on chronic corticosteroids (CCS) and 35.9% on early corticosteroid withdrawal (CSWD) were diagnosed with NODAT by 5 years. The definition combining fasting blood glucose ≥126 mg/dL on two occasions or treatment identified slightly more cases of NODAT: CCS (39.3%) and CSWD (39.4%). Through 5 years posttransplant, the proportion of NODAT patients requiring treatment were similar (CSWD 22.5% vs. CCS 21.5%); however, insulin therapy was lower with CSWD (3.7% vs. 11.6%; p = 0.049). By multivariate analysis, only age, but not corticosteroid use, was a significant risk factor for NODAT for more than one definition. Numerical, but not statistically significant trends toward lower NODAT rates with CSWD were observed through 5 years for insulin use, HbA1c ≥6.0% and ≥6.5% on two occasions. This prospective, randomized trial of CSWD indicates that CSWD has a limited impact in reducing NODAT when compared to low-dose prednisone (5 mg/day from month 6 to 5 years).




http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/resolve/doi?DOI=10.1111%2Fajt.13247

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Alberto Reino Buelvas

Wednesday, April 1, 2015

{beta}-Blocker Dialyzability and Mortality in Older Patients Receiving Hemodialysis

Journal of the American Society of Nephrology current issue {beta}-Blocker Dialyzability and Mortality in Older Patients Receiving Hemodialysis

Some β-blockers are efficiently removed from the circulation by hemodialysis ("high dialyzability") whereas others are not ("low dialyzability"). This characteristic may influence the effectiveness of the β-blockers among patients receiving long-term hemodialysis. To determine whether new use of a high-dialyzability β-blocker compared with a low-dialyzability β-blocker associates with a higher rate of mortality in patients older than age 66 years receiving long-term hemodialysis, we conducted a propensity-matched population-based retrospective cohort study using the linked healthcare databases of Ontario, Canada. The high-dialyzability group (n=3294) included patients initiating atenolol, acebutolol, or metoprolol. The low-dialyzability group (n=3294) included patients initiating bisoprolol or propranolol. Initiation of a high- versus low-dialyzability β-blocker was associated with a higher risk of death in the following 180 days (relative risk, 1.4; 95% confidence interval, 1.1 to 1.8; P<0.01). Supporting this finding, we repeated the primary analysis in a cohort of patients not receiving hemodialysis and found no significant association between dialyzability and the risk of death (relative risk, 1.0; 95% confidence interval, 0.9 to 1.3; P=0.71). β-Blocker exposure was not randomly allocated in this study, so a causal relationship between dialyzability and mortality cannot be determined. However, our findings should raise awareness of this potentially important drug characteristic and prompt further study.




http://jasn.asnjournals.org/cgi/content/short/26/4/987?rss=1

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Alberto Reino Buelvas 
Médico Internista Nefrólogo