Thursday, December 13, 2012

OPTN/SRTR 2011 Annual Data Report: Kidney


OPTN/SRTR 2011 Annual Data Report: Kidney

ABSTRACT  A shortage of kidneys for transplant remains a major problem for patients with end-stage renal disease. The number of candidates on the waiting list continues to increase each year, while organ donation numbers remain flat. Thus, transplant rates for adult wait-listed candidates continue to decrease. However, pretransplant mortality rates also show a decreasing trend. Many kidneys recovered for transplant are discarded, and discard rates are increasing. Living donation rates have been essentially unchanged for the past decade, despite introduction of desensitization, non-directed donations, and kidney paired donation programs. For both living and deceased donor recipients, early posttransplant results have shown ongoing improvement, driven by decreases in rates of graft failure and return to dialysis. Immunosuppressive drug use has changed little, except for the Food and Drug Administration approval of belatacept in 2011, the first approval of a maintenance immunosuppressive drug in more than a decade. Pediatric kidney transplant candidates receive priority under the Share 35 policy. The number of pediatric transplants peaked in 2005, and decreased to a low of 760 in 2011. Graft survival and short-term renal function continue to improve for pediatric recipients. Postransplant lymphoproliferative disorder is an important concern, occurring in about one-third of pediatric recipients.


Página original: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/resolve/doi?DOI=10.1111%2Fajt.12019

Wednesday, December 12, 2012

Machine perfusion versus cold storage for the preservation of kidneys from donors >=65 years allocated in the Eurotransplant Senior Programme


Machine perfusion versus cold storage for the preservation of kidneys from donors >=65 years allocated in the Eurotransplant Senior Programme

Background

In the Eurotransplant Senior Programme (ESP), kidneys from donors aged ≥65 years are preferentially allocated locally and transplanted into patients aged ≥65 years on dialysis. The purpose of this study was to analyse whether the results of transplantation in the ESP can be improved by preservation of organs by hypothermic machine perfusion (MP) compared with simple cold storage (CS).

Methods

Overall, 85 deceased heart-beating donors ≥65 years of age were included in this analysis with follow-up until 1 year post-transplant. For each donor, one kidney was randomly assigned to preservation by CS and the contralateral kidney to MP from organ procurement until transplantation. Delayed graft function (DGF), primary non-function (PNF) and 1-year patient and graft survival rates were evaluated as primary and secondary endpoints.

Results

The median recipient age was 66 years in both groups and the median cold ischaemia time was 11 h for MP and 10.5 h for CS (P = 0.69). The DGF rate was 29.4% for MP and 34.1% for CS (P = 0.58). Only extended duration of cold ischaemia time was an independent risk factor for the development of DGF (odds ratio 1.2, P < 0.0001). PNF was significantly reduced (3.5% MP versus 12.9% CS, P = 0.02). The 1-year patient and graft survival rates were similar for MP and CS (94% versus 95% and 89 versus 81%, P > 0.05). The 1-year graft survival rate was significantly improved after MP in recipients who developed DGF (84% MP versus 48% CS, P = 0.01).

Conclusions

Continuous pulsatile hypothermic MP for kidneys from donors aged ≥65 years can reduce the rate of never-functioning kidneys and improve the 1-year graft survival rate of kidneys with DGF. In this small cohort, the known advantage of MP for the reduction of DGF could not be confirmed, possibly due to relatively short cold ischaemia times.


Página original: http://ndt.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/short/27/12/4458?rss=1


Monday, December 10, 2012

Everolimus-Treated Renal Transplant Recipients Have a More Robust CMV-Specific CD8+ T-Cell Response Compared With Cyclosporine- or Mycophenolate-Treated Patients


Everolimus-Treated Renal Transplant Recipients Have a More Robust CMV-Specific CD8+ T-Cell Response Compared With Cyclosporine- or Mycophenolate-Treated Patients

Background: In renal transplant recipients, mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors have been reported to protect against cytomegalovirus (CMV) disease. Here, we questioned whether mTOR inhibitors specifically influence human CMV-induced T-cell responses. Methods: We studied renal transplant recipients treated with prednisolone, cyclosporine A (CsA), and mycophenolate sodium (MPS) for the first 6 months after transplantation followed by double therapy consisting of prednisolone/everolimus, which is an mTOR inhibitor (P/EVL; n=10), prednisolone/CsA (P/CsA; n=7), or prednisolone/MPS (P/MPS; n=9). All patients were CMV-IgG positive before transplantation. CMV reactivation was detectable in the first 6 months after transplantation and not thereafter. None of the patients included in this study suffered from CMV disease. Both CD27-CD8+ and CD27-CD28-CD4+ effector-type T-cell counts, known to be associated with CMV infection, were measured before transplantation and at 6 and 24 months after transplantation. Additionally, we determined both number and function of CMV-specific CD8+ T cells at these time points. Results: The number of total CD8+ T cells, CD27-CD8+ T cells, and CD28-CD4+ T cells increased significantly after switch to therapy with P/EVL but not after switch to P/CsA or P/MPS. Specifically, CMV-specific CD8+ T-cell counts significantly increased after switch to therapy with P/EVL. Furthermore, the mTOR inhibitor sirolimus strongly inhibited alloresponses in vitro, whereas it did not affect CMV-specific responses. Conclusion: We observed a significant increase in (CMV-specific) effector-type CD8+ and CD4+ T-cell counts in everolimus-treated patients. These findings may at least in part explain the reported low incidence of CMV-related pathology in everolimus-treated patients. (C) 2012 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.

Página original: http://pdfs.journals.lww.com/transplantjournal/9000/00000/Everolimus_Treated_Renal_Transplant_Recipients.98779.pdf


Saturday, December 8, 2012

Effects of HLA-Matched Blood Transfusion for Patients Awaiting Renal Transplantation


Effects of HLA-Matched Blood Transfusion for Patients Awaiting Renal Transplantation

imageBackground: HLA sensitization in potential renal transplant recipients hinders opportunities of receiving suitable organs. To alleviate this, we sought to determine if supplying closely HLA Class I matched leukodepleted blood would minimize sensitization. Methods: Patients received HLA selected or random units of packed red cells. Selected units were sourced from blood donors included in the British Bone Marrow Registry and had no HLA-A and HLA-B mismatches where available, or alternatively, no HLA antigens with more than five immunogenic triplet mismatches as determined by the HLAMatchmaker algorithm. Posttransfusion antibody screening confirmed development of de novo Class I and Class II HLA-specific IgG antibody(s) or increases in preexisting antibody levels of at least 20%. Results: Thirty-seven and 31 patients received HLA selected (mean, 2.5 units) and random (mean, 3.4 units) blood, respectively. A total of 20 of 37 (54.1%) patients receiving selected units and 10 of 31 (32.3%) patients receiving random units were previously sensitized. No patient receiving HLA selected units demonstrated any change in antibody levels. In patients who received random units, 7 of 31 demonstrated changes in antibody levels with three developing de novo HLA-specific antibodies and four an increase in panel reactive antibody (PRA) of at least 20% (P=0.002). Conclusions: The risk of developing HLA-specific antibody is significantly reduced in renal patients awaiting transplantation when transfused with HLA selected units of blood compared with random units. With planning, access to HLA typed blood is achievable as many blood transfusion centers recruit donors for stem cell donor registries.

Página original: http://journals.lww.com/transplantjournal/Fulltext/2012/12150/Effects_of_HLA_Matched_Blood_Transfusion_for.6.aspx

HTLV-1 in Solid-Organ Transplantation: Current Challenges and Future Management Strategies


HTLV-1 in Solid-Organ Transplantation: Current Challenges and Future Management Strategies

imageHuman T-cell lymphotrophic virus (HTLV)-1 has been reported after solid-organ transplantation, with a related fatal outcome in less than five cases. The natural history of HTLV-1 transmission from donor to recipient is unknown in this setting, because available screening platforms are suboptimal in low-prevalence areas and there is a lack of long-term follow-up. Minimizing organ wastage due to false-positive screening and avoiding donor-derived HTLV-associated diseases remain the goal. To date, only six HTLV-naive organ recipients from four donors (only one had confirmed HTLV) have developed HTLV-associated disease after transplantation. All of these cases were described in countries or from donors from HTLV-endemic regions. To the best of our knowledge, there have been no reported cases of donor-derived HTLV-1–associated death after organ transplantation in the world. Based on data from low-prevalence countries (Europe and the United States) and the current shortage of donor organs, it appears plausible to authorize the decision to transplant an organ without the prior knowledge of the donor's HTLV-1 status. Currently, it is not possible to exclude such transmission and recipients should be informed of the possible inadvertent transmission of this (and other) infections at the time of consent. In those cases where HTLV-1 transmission does occur, there may be a therapeutic window in which use of antiviral agents (i.e., zidovudine and raltegravir) may be of benefit. The development of national/international registries should allow a greater understanding of the extent and consequences of transmission risk and so allow a more evidence-based approach to management.

Página original: http://journals.lww.com/transplantjournal/Fulltext/2012/12150/HTLV_1_in_Solid_Organ_Transplantation___Current.1.aspx


Tuesday, December 4, 2012

Is Cytomegalovirus Prophylaxis Dispensable in Patients Receiving an mTOR Inhibitor-Based Immunosuppression? A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis


Is Cytomegalovirus Prophylaxis Dispensable in Patients Receiving an mTOR Inhibitor-Based Immunosuppression? A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Background: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a common opportunistic infection after solid organ transplantation. Cytomegalovirus causes increased morbidity, mortality, and reduced allograft survival. Prophylaxis may help control the virus but is associated with substantial side effects and does not completely prevent virus reactivation; relapses after cessation of the prophylaxis are frequent. Experimental and clinical data suggest that mTOR inhibitors may have an anti-CMV effect. Here, we present a meta-analysis of clinical trials after solid organ transplantation and describe potential mechanisms involved in the anti-CMV effect of mTOR-inhibitors. Methods: The current literature was reviewed for randomized controlled trials in solid organ transplantation comparing an mTOR-I with a non-mTOR-I (CNI based) treatment. The scientific quality of the trials was assessed by the Jadad score, the use of an effective allocation concealment (AC) and the existence of an intention-to-treat (ITT) analysis. Cytomegalovirus incidence was assessed in studies comparing 1) an mTOR-I-based with a CNI-based immunosuppression (10 trials, n=3,100 patients) and 2) an mTOR-I/CNI combination therapy with a CNI-based immunosuppression (15 trials, n=7,100 patients). Results: In the first meta-analysis, CMV events after solid organ transplantation occurred significantly more often under CNIs (RR=2.27). The second meta-analysis comparing the mTOR-I + CNI combination with a CNI treatment in 15 trials of kidney, heart, and liver transplantation showed again a higher CMV incidence when patients received an mTOR-I free immunosuppression (RR=2.45). Conclusions: mTOR-inhibitor treatment either alone or in combination with CNIs reduces significantly the CMV incidence after organ transplantation. With the use of an mTOR-inhibitor, CMV prophylaxis may be dispensible. (C) 2012 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.

Página original: http://pdfs.journals.lww.com/transplantjournal/9000/00000/Is_Cytomegalovirus_Prophylaxis_Dispensable_in.98791.pdf

The Effect of Everolimus Versus Mycophenolate Upon Proteinuria Following Kidney Transplant and Relationship to Graft Outcomes


The Effect of Everolimus Versus Mycophenolate Upon Proteinuria Following Kidney Transplant and Relationship to Graft Outcomes

Although mTOR inhibitor use has been associated with proteinuria in kidney transplant recipients, dose dependency and impact on allograft function are unknown. In a post hoc analysis, we compared rates of proteinuria 3 months posttransplant among everolimus (EVR) and mycophenolate (MPA) treatment arms and used a time-dependent model to correlate the risk of proteinuria to EVR trough levels up to 24 months posttransplant. eGFR and graft loss was compared by proteinuria status at 3 months. Of 833 randomized patients, 24%, 36% and 19% of lower exposure EVR (1.5 mg/day), higher exposure EVR (3.0 mg/day) and MPA-treated patients had proteinuria ≥ 300 mg/g Cr at 3 months, respectively. EVR 1.5 was not associated with an increase in risk of proteinuria (HR 1.20; p = 0.19) unlike EVR 3.0 (HR 1.84; p < 0.001) versus MPA. EVR trough levels >8 ng/mL were significantly associated with proteinuria compared to 3–8 ng/mL (HR 1.86; p < 0.001). Those patients with proteinuria at 3 months and those who developed proteinuria thereafter had lower eGFR and higher graft loss at 24 months, regardless of treatment arm. We identify a dose-dependent effect of EVR with the risk of proteinuria; however, its independent impact upon eGFR and graft survival at 2 years was not evident.


Página original: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/resolve/doi?DOI=10.1111%2Fj.1600-6143.2012.04334.x


Sunday, December 2, 2012

Effect on Kidney Graft Survival of Reducing or Discontinuing Maintenance Immunosuppression After the First Year Posttransplant


Effect on Kidney Graft Survival of Reducing or Discontinuing Maintenance Immunosuppression After the First Year Posttransplant

imageBackground. Data are scarce concerning the impact of maintenance immunosuppression dose reductions posttransplant. Methods. Graft survival according to dose reduction or discontinuation of calcineurin inhibitors or mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) after the first year posttransplant was evaluated in 25,045 patients undergoing kidney transplantation during 1996 to 2005. No patient in this analysis had experienced a rejection and all had good graft function before dose reduction. Results. Reduction of cyclosporine (CsA) dose to less than or equal to 150 mg/day, tacrolimus to less than or equal to 2 mg/day, or MMF to less than or equal to 1.0 g/day in patients on CsA or less than or equal to 0.5 g/day in patients on tacrolimus during the second year posttransplant was associated with a statistically significant reduction in graft survival (hazard ratios between 1.37 and 1.65). Withdrawal of CsA, tacrolimus, or MMF during year 2 was also associated with an increase in the risk of graft loss compared with continuing treatment (hazard ratio 1.52-1.73). Conclusions. This observational analysis indicates that in kidney transplant patients with good graft function, withdrawing maintenance CsA, tacrolimus or MMF, or reducing the dose of these agents below certain thresholds after the first year posttransplant is associated with a significant risk of graft loss. (C) 2008 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.

Página original: http://journals.lww.com/transplantjournal/Fulltext/2008/08150/Effect_on_Kidney_Graft_Survival_of_Reducing_or.1.aspx

Preformed Complement-Activating Low-Level Donor-Specific Antibody Predicts Early Antibody-Mediated Rejection in Renal Allografts


Preformed Complement-Activating Low-Level Donor-Specific Antibody Predicts Early Antibody-Mediated Rejection in Renal Allografts

Background: Donor-specific anti-HLA antibodies (DSA) are a major cause of alloimmune injury. Transplant recipients with negative complement-dependent cytotoxic crossmatch (CDC-XM) and donor cell-based flow cytometric crossmatch (flow-XM) but low level DSA (i.e., by Luminex) have worse outcomes compared with nonsensitized patients. The aim of this study was to establish whether complement-activating ability in this low-level DSA, present before transplantation, as determined by this technique is important in dictating pathogenicity. Methods: We retrospectively studied 52 patients with preformed DSA detected by single-antigen flow cytometric fluorescent beads (SAFBs). Patients were transplanted using a steroid-sparing regimen consisting of alemtuzumab induction, 1 week of corticosteroids and tacrolimus monotherapy.Fifteen (29%) of 52 patients experienced antibody-mediated rejection (AMR), whereas 37 (71%) patients did not. There were no demographic differences between patients with AMR and those without. Pretransplant sera were retested using a modified (SAFB) assay, which detects the presence of the complement fragment C4d as a result of DSA-induced complement activation. Results: C4d+DSA were detected in 10 (19%) of 52 patients. Biopsy-proven AMR occurred in 7 (70%) of the 10 patients with C4d+DSA and in 8 (19%) of 42 patients with C4d-DSA. AMR-free survival was worse in patients with C4d+DSA (P<0.001). Conclusions: The ability of preformed, low-level, DSA to trigger C4d fixation in vitro in patients with negative conventional crossmatch tests is predictive for AMR. C4d SAFB is potentially a powerful tool for risk stratification prior to transplantation and may allow identification of unacceptable donor antigens, or patients who may require enhanced immunosuppression. (C) 2012 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.

Página original: http://pdfs.journals.lww.com/transplantjournal/9000/00000/Preformed_Complement_Activating_Low_Level.98796.pdf


Saturday, December 1, 2012

Impact of donor age on long-term outcomes after delayed graft function: 10-year follow-up


Impact of donor age on long-term outcomes after delayed graft function: 10-year follow-up

Summary

Delayed graft function (DGF) has a negative impact on graft survival in donation after brain death (DBD) but not for donation after cardiac death (DCD) kidneys. However, older donor age is associated with graft loss in DCD transplants. We sought to examine the interaction between donor age and DGF in DBD kidneys. This is a single-center, retrospective review of 657 consecutive DBD recipients transplanted between 1990 and 2005. We stratified the cohort by decades of donor age and studied the association between DGF and graft failure using Cox models. The risk of graft loss associated with DGF was not significantly increased for donor age below 60 years (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 1.12, 1.51, and 0.90, respectively, for age <40, 41–50 and 51–60 years) but significantly increased after 60 years (aHR 2.67; P = 0.019). Analysis of death-censored graft failure yielded similar results for donor age below 60 years and showed a substantially increased risk with donors above 60 years (aHR 6.98, = 0.002). This analysis reveals an unexpectedly high impact of older donor age on the association between DGF and renal transplant outcomes. Further research is needed to determine the best use of kidneys from donors above 60 years old, where DGF is expected.


Página original: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/resolve/doi?DOI=10.1111%2Ftri.12016

Friday, November 30, 2012

Donor-Specific Antibodies Adversely Affect Kidney Allograft Outcomes


Donor-Specific Antibodies Adversely Affect Kidney Allograft Outcomes

The effect of low titers of donor-specific antibodies (DSAs) detected only by sensitive solid-phase assays (SPAs) on renal transplant outcomes is unclear. We report the results of a systematic review and meta-analysis of rejection rates and graft outcomes for renal transplant recipients with such preformed DSAs, defined by positive results on SPA but negative complement-dependent cytotoxicity and flow cytometry crossmatch results. Our search identified seven retrospective cohort studies comprising a total of 1119 patients, including 145 with isolated DSA-SPA. Together, these studies suggest that the presence of DSA-SPA, despite a negative flow cytometry crossmatch result, nearly doubles the risk for antibody-mediated rejection (relative risk [RR], 1.98; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.36–2.89; P<0.001) and increases the risk for graft failure by 76% (RR, 1.76; 95% CI, 1.13–2.74; P=0.01). These results suggest that donor selection should consider the presence of antibodies in the recipient, identified by the SPA, even in the presence of a negative flow cytometry crossmatch result.


Página original: http://jasn.asnjournals.org/cgi/content/short/23/12/2061?rss=1


Association of HLA Mismatch With Death With a Functioning Graft A...

Association of HLA Mismatch With Death With a Functioning Graft After Kidney Transplantation: A Collaborative Transplant Study Report

Authors: Opelz, G.; Döhler, B.

Source: American Journal of Transplantation, Volume 12, Number 11, 1 November 2012 , pp. 3031-3038(8)

Abstract:

HLA mismatches may correlate with risk of death with a functioning graft (DWFG) because of requirement for higher immunosuppression doses and more antirejection therapy. Deceased-donor kidney transplants (n = 177 584) performed 1990-2009 and reported to the Collaborative Transplant Study were analyzed. The incidence of DWFG was found to be 4.8% during year 1 posttransplant and 7.7% during years 2-5 (Kaplan-Meier estimates). Most frequent causes of DWFG were infection, cardiovascular disease and malignancy (32.2%, 30.9% and 3.6% in year 1; 16.4%, 29.6% and 15.9% in years 2-5). HLA-A + B + DR mismatches were significantly associated with DWFG during year 1 (p < 0.001), a correlation that diminished but persisted during years 2-5 (p < 0.001). HLA mismatch was associated with DWFG because of infection (p < 0.001 during year 1, p = 0.043 during years 2-5) or cardiovascular disease (p < 0.001 during year 1, p = 0.030 during years 2-5) but not malignancy. There was also a significant association between HLA mismatch and hospitalization for viral (p < 0.001) or bacterial (p = 0.002) infection. Multivariable analysis showed that mismatches for HLA class II were more strongly associated with both hospitalization and DWFG than mismatches for HLA class I.

Document Type: Research article

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-6143.2012.04226.x

Affiliations: 1: Department of Transplantation Immunology, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany

Página original: http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/mksg/ajt/2012/00000012/00000011/art00021


Thursday, November 29, 2012

Increased Urinary CCL2: Cr Ratio at 6 Months is Associated With Late Renal Allograft Loss


Increased Urinary CCL2: Cr Ratio at 6 Months is Associated With Late Renal Allograft Loss

Background: Early noninvasive markers that identify patients at risk of renal allograft loss may stratify patients for more intensive monitoring or therapy. CCL2 is a CCR2 receptor chemokine that is a chemoattractant protein for monocytes/macrophages, T cells, and natural killer cells. We have previously demonstrated in a multicenter cohort that urinary CCL2 at 6 months is an independent predictor for the development of IFTA at 24 months. The goal of this study was to determine if early urinary CCL2 is a predictor of graft loss in an independent patient cohort. Methods: A prospective, observational cohort study was conducted in the Transplant Manitoba Adult Kidney Program (n=231 patients) from 1997 to 2008. Six-month urinary CCL2 was measured by ELISA, corrected for urinary creatinine, and correlated with long-term graft outcomes. Results: Urine CCL2: Cr at 6 months was significantly associated with death-censored graft loss (HR, 2.42; 95% CI, 1.54-3.82, P<0.0001). On multivariate analysis, urinary CCL2: Cr at 6 months remained an independent predictor of death-censored graft loss (HR, 2.20; 95% CI, 1.18-4.10, P=0.01) after adjustment for pretransplant/de novo donor-specific antibody and delayed graft function. An early posttransplant (<=6 months) multivariate model of CCL2, recipient age, and delayed graft function yielded an AUC 0.87 for prediction of death-censored graft loss. A cutoff value of urinary CCL2: Cr 34.8 ng/mmol yielded a strong positive predictive value of 0.96. Conclusions: This study confirms in an independent prospective cohort that early urinary CCL2 at 6 months is a noninvasive, independent predictor for late renal allograft loss. (C) 2012 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.

Página original: http://pdfs.journals.lww.com/transplantjournal/9000/00000/Increased_Urinary_CCL2___Cr_Ratio_at_6_Months_is.98797.pdf


Sunday, November 25, 2012

Renal Function and NODM in De Novo Renal Transplant Recipients Treated with Standard and Reduced Levels of Tacrolimus in Combination with EC-MPS


Renal Function and NODM in De Novo Renal Transplant Recipients Treated with Standard and Reduced Levels of Tacrolimus in Combination with EC-MPS

Information is lacking concerning concomitant administration of enteric-coated mycophenolate sodium with tacrolimus (EC-MPS+Tac) in renal transplant recipients (RTxR). In this 6-month, prospective, open-label, multicenter study, de novo RTxR were randomized (1 : 1) to low-dose (LD) or standard-dose (SD) Tac with basiliximab, EC-MPS 720 mg bid, and steroids. Primary objective was to compare renal function at 6-month posttransplantation. Secondary objectives were to compare the incidences of biopsy-proven acute rejection (BPAR), graft loss and death, and new-onset diabetes mellitus (NODM). 292 patients (LD , SD ) were included. Mean Tac levels were at the low end of the target range in standard-exposure patients (SD, ) and exceeded target range in low-exposure patients (LD = 151) throughout the study. There was no significant difference in mean glomerular filtration rate (GFR) between treatments (ITT-population: 63.6 versus 61.0 mL/min). Incidence of BPAR was similar (10.6% versus 9.9%). NODM was significantly less frequent in LD Tac (17% versus 31%; ); other adverse effects (AEs) were comparable. EC-MPS+Tac (LD/SD) was efficacious and well tolerated with well-preserved renal function. No renal function benefits were demonstrated, possibly related to poor adherence to reduced Tac exposure.

Página original: http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jtran/2012/941640/


Wednesday, November 21, 2012

Cinacalcet for the Treatment of Hyperparathyroidism in Kidney Transplant Recipients: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis


Cinacalcet for the Treatment of Hyperparathyroidism in Kidney Transplant Recipients: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

imageBackground: Hyperparathyroidism is present in up to 50% of transplant recipients 1 year after transplant, often despite good graft function. Posttransplant patients frequently have hypercalcemia-associated hyperparathyroidism, limiting the role of vitamin D analogues and sometimes requiring parathyroidectomy. Multiple observational studies have investigated treatment of posttransplant hyperparathyroidism with the calcimimetic agent cinacalcet. Methods: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective and retrospective studies from 2004 through January 26, 2012, using MEDLINE. We identified studies evaluating treatment with cinacalcet in renal transplant recipients with hyperparathyroidism. We performed random effects meta-analysis to determine changes in calcium, phosphorus, parathyroid hormone, and serum creatinine. Results: Twenty-one studies with 411 kidney transplant recipients treated with cinacalcet for hyperparathyroidism met inclusion criteria. Patients were treated for 3 to 24 months. By meta-analysis, calcium decreased by 1.14 mg/dL (95% confidence interval, −1.00 to −1.28), phosphorus increased by 0.46 mg/dL (95% confidence interval, 0.28–0.64), parathyroid hormone decreased by 102 pg/mL (95% confidence interval, −69 to −134), and there was no significant change in creatinine (0.02 mg/dL decrease; 95% confidence interval, −0.09 to 0.06). Cinacalcet resulted in hypocalcemia in seven patients. The most common side effect was gastrointestinal intolerance. Conclusions: From nonrandomized studies, cinacalcet appears to be safe and effective for the treatment of posttransplant hyperparathyroidism. Larger observational studies and randomized controlled trials, performed over longer follow-up times and looking at clinical outcomes, are needed to corroborate these findings.

Página original: http://journals.lww.com/transplantjournal/Fulltext/2012/11270/Cinacalcet_for_the_Treatment_of.10.aspx


Posttransplant Malignancies in Solid Organ Adult Recipients: An Analysis of the U.S. National Transplant Database


Posttransplant Malignancies in Solid Organ Adult Recipients: An Analysis of the U.S. National Transplant Database

imageBackground: De novo posttransplant malignancy (PTM) is a serious complication of transplantation. Incidences may vary among solid organ transplantations (SOTs) and may take to particular screening recommendations and posttransplantation care. Methods: Adult recipients, from the U.S. Organ Procurement Transplant Network/United Network for Organ Sharing database (data as of September 3, 2010), of a primary kidney transplantation (KT), liver transplantation (LT), heart transplantation (HT) or lung transplantation (LuT) performed in the United States between 1999 and 2008 were selected. Multiple-organ recipients and those whose grafts failed within 2 weeks after transplantation were excluded. The incidence of PTM (in 1000 person-years) was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier product-limit method and compared with SOT and the general population. Results: The cohort included 193,905 recipients (123,380 KT; 43,106 LT; 16511 HT; and 10,908 LuT). PTM incidence was 8.03, 11.0, 14.3, and 19.8 in KT, LT, HT, and LuT, respectively. In general, PTM recipients were 3 to 5 years older, mostly whites, and are males in all SOTs. In KT, the type of cancer with the highest incidence was posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD, 1.58%), followed by lung (1.12%), prostate (0.82%), and kidney (0.79%) cancers; in LT, PTLD (2.44%), lung and bronchial (2.18%), primary hepatic (0.91%), and prostate (0.88%) cancers; in HT, lung and bronchial (3.24%) and prostate (3.07%) cancers, and PTLD (2.24%); and in LuT, lung and bronchial cancers (5.94%), PTLD (5.72%), and colorectal cancer (1.38%). PTLD, Kaposi sarcoma, and lung and bronchial cancers were increased in all SOTs, when compared with an older (55- to 59-year-old) population. Conclusions: Cancer incidence is different among solid organ transplantations, and ratios may be higher than those in the 55- to 59-year-old population.

Página original: http://journals.lww.com/transplantjournal/Fulltext/2012/11270/Posttransplant_Malignancies_in_Solid_Organ_Adult.3.aspx


Tobacco Smoking and Solid Organ Transplantation


Tobacco Smoking and Solid Organ Transplantation

imageSmoking, both by donors and by recipients, has a major impact on outcomes after organ transplantation. Recipients of smokers' organs are at greater risk of death (lungs hazard ratio [HR], 1.36; heart HR, 1.8; and liver HR, 1.25), extended intensive care stays, and greater need for ventilation. Kidney function is significantly worse at 1 year after transplantation in recipients of grafts from smokers compared with nonsmokers. Clinicians must balance the use of such higher-risk organs with the consequences on waiting list mortality if the donor pool is reduced further by exclusion of such donors. Smoking by kidney transplant recipients significantly increases the risk of cardiovascular events (29.2% vs. 15.4%), renal fibrosis, rejection, and malignancy (HR, 2.56). Furthermore, liver recipients who smoke have higher rates of hepatic artery thrombosis, biliary complications, and malignancy (13% vs. 2%). Heart recipients with a smoking history have increased risk of developing coronary atherosclerosis (21.2% vs. 12.3%), graft dysfunction, and loss after transplantation. Self-reporting of smoking is commonplace but unreliable, which limits its use as a tool for selection of transplant candidates. Despite effective counseling and pharmacotherapy, recidivism rates after transplantation remain high (10–40%). Transplant services need to be more proactive in educating and implementing effective smoking cessation strategies to reduce rates of recidivism and the posttransplantation complications associated with smoking. The adverse impact of smoking by the recipient supports the requirement for a 6-month period of abstinence in lung recipients and cessation before other solid organs.

Página original: http://journals.lww.com/transplantjournal/Fulltext/2012/11270/Tobacco_Smoking_and_Solid_Organ_Transplantation.1.aspx


Inferior Early Posttransplant Outcomes for Recipients of Right Versus Left Deceased Donor Kidneys: An ANZDATA Registry Analysis


Inferior Early Posttransplant Outcomes for Recipients of Right Versus Left Deceased Donor Kidneys: An ANZDATA Registry Analysis

Anatomical differences between right and left kidneys could influence transplant outcome. We compared graft function and survival for left and right kidney recipients transplanted from the same deceased organ donor. Adult recipients of 4900 single kidneys procured from 2450 heart beating deceased donors in Australia and New Zealand from 1995 to 2009 were included in a paired analysis. Right kidneys were associated with more delayed graft function (DGF) (25 vs. 21% for left kidneys, p < 0.001) and, if not affected by DGF, a slower fall in serum creatinine. One-year graft survival was lower for right kidneys (89.1 vs. 91.1% for left kidneys, p = 0.001), primarily attributed to surgical complications (66 versus 35 failures for left kidneys). Beyond the first posttransplant year, kidney side was not associated with eGFR, graft or patient survival. Receipt of a right kidney is a risk factor for inferior outcomes in the first year after transplantation. A higher incidence of surgical complications suggests the shorter right renal vein may be contributory. The higher susceptibility of right kidneys to injury should be considered in organ allocation.


Página original: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/resolve/doi?DOI=10.1111%2Fj.1600-6143.2012.04312.x


Effect of Corticosteroid Withdrawal on Tacrolimus and Mycophenolate Mofetil Exposure in a Randomized Multicenter Study


Effect of Corticosteroid Withdrawal on Tacrolimus and Mycophenolate Mofetil Exposure in a Randomized Multicenter Study

As corticosteroid-sparing protocols are increasingly utilized in kidney transplant recipients, it is crucial to understand potential drug interactions between tacrolimus (TAC) and the effect of corticosteroid withdrawal as well as to characterize dose adjustments of mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) in this setting. This prospective, multicenter, randomized, double-blind study included 397 patients who were randomized on posttransplant day 8 to receive either placebo (CSWD) or corticosteroid continuance (CCS). TAC trough levels at week two posttransplant were significantly greater in the CSWD group whereas TAC doses were comparable to the CCS group. This interaction was not observed in the African American subgroup. Higher serum creatinine and potassium levels were also observed in the CSWD group. MMF dose was significantly reduced in the CSWD group by the investigators because of decreased WBC counts, mostly outside of study protocol criteria, despite similar incidence of neutropenia and reported cytomegalovirus infection. Understanding TAC and MMF exposure in the context of corticosteroid-sparing protocols should allow for improved dosing of immunosuppressants and better management of posttransplant patients.


Página original: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/resolve/doi?DOI=10.1111%2Fj.1600-6143.2012.04327.x

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Treatment of Steroid-Resistant Acute Renal Allograft Rejection With Alemtuzumab


Treatment of Steroid-Resistant Acute Renal Allograft Rejection With Alemtuzumab

Steroid-resistant renal allograft rejections are commonly treated with rabbit antithymocyte globulin (RATG), but alemtuzumab could be an effective, safe and more convenient alternative. Adult patients with steroid-resistant renal allograft rejection treated with alemtuzumab (15–30 mg s.c. on 2 subsequent days) from 2008 to 2012 (n = 11) were compared to patients treated with RATG (2.5-4.0 mg/kg bodyweight i.v. for 10–14 days; n = 20). We assessed treatment-failure (graft loss, lack of improvement of graft function or need for additional anti-rejection treatment), infections during the first 3 months after treatment and infusion-related side effects. In both groups, the median time-interval between rejection and transplantation was 2 weeks, and approximately 75% of rejections were classified as Banff-IIA or higher. Three alemtuzumab-treated patients (27%) experienced treatment failure, compared to eight RATG treated patients (40%, p = 0.70). There was no difference in the incidence of infections. There were mild infusion-related side-effects in three alemtuzumab-treated patients (27%), and more severe infusion-related side effects in 17 RATG-treated patients (85%, p = 0.013). Drug related costs of alemtuzumab-treatment were lower than of RATG-treatment (€1050 vs. €2024; p < 0.01). Alemtuzumab might be an effective therapy for steroid-resistant renal allograft rejections. In contrast to RATG, alemtuzumab is nearly devoid of infusion-related side-effects. These data warrant a prospective trial.


Página original: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/resolve/doi?DOI=10.1111%2Fj.1600-6143.2012.04328.x


Saturday, November 17, 2012

Factors Predictive of Medication Nonadherence After Renal Transplantation: A French Observational Study


Factors Predictive of Medication Nonadherence After Renal Transplantation: A French Observational Study

Background: There have been few prospective studies on the natural history of nonadherence (NA) in kidney transplant recipients (KTRs) over time. The objective of this study was to prospectively evaluate the rate of and risk factors for NA in a French cohort of KTRs. Method: A total of 312 KTRs from eight French transplantation centers were included in this prospective, noninterventional cohort study. A computer-learning software package (the Organ Transplant Information System) was made available to all patients. Results: Using the four-item Morisky scale, we showed that 17.3%, 24.1%, 30.7%, and 34.6% of patients were nonadherent at posttransplant month 3 (M3), M6, M12, and M24, respectively. Young age was predictive of NA at M6, M12, and M24. Surprisingly, simple treatment regimens including a small number of doses per day and a small number of tablets per day were associated with NA at M3 and M12, respectively. Other factors predictive of NA included failure to use the Organ Transplant Information System software package at M6 and patient reports of adverse events at M12 and M24. Importantly, we observed that physicians underestimated the prevalence of adverse events when compared to patient self-reporting. Conclusion: Our observed rate of medication NA in France is consistent with rates reported in previous studies. We found variability in NA risk factors over time as well as an unexpected risk factor (simple treatment regimens). These findings will be useful in developing effective adherence-promoting interventions. (C) 2012 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.

Página original: http://pdfs.journals.lww.com/transplantjournal/9000/00000/Factors_Predictive_of_Medication_Nonadherence.98812.pdf


Cancer Transmission From Organ Donors-Unavoidable but Low Risk


Cancer Transmission From Organ Donors-Unavoidable but Low Risk

Background: Donor origin cancer (DOC) in transplant recipients may be transmitted with the graft (donor-transmitted cancer [DTC]) or develop subsequently from the graft (donor-derived cancer [DDC]). Methods: Recipients with DOC between January 1, 2001, and December 31, 2010, were identified from the United Kingdom Transplant Registry and database search at transplantation centers. Results: Of 30,765 transplants from 14,986 donors, 18 recipients developed DOC from 16 donors (0.06%): 3 were DDC (0.01%) and 15 were DTC (0.05%). Of the 15 DTCs, 6 were renal cell cancer; 5, lung cancer; 2, lymphoma; 1, neuroendocrine cancer; and 1, colon cancer. Recipients with DTC underwent explant/excision (11), chemotherapy (4), and radiotherapy (1). Of 15 recipients, 3 (20%) recipients with DTC died as a direct consequence of cancer. Early DTC (diagnosed <=6 weeks of transplantation) showed a better outcome (no DTC-related deaths in 11 cases) as opposed to late DTC (DTC-related deaths in 3 of 4 cases). Five-year survival was 83% for kidney recipients with DTC compared with 93% for recipients without DTC (P=0.077). None of the donors resulting in cancer transmission was known to have cancer at donation. Conclusions: DTC is rare but frequently results in graft loss and death. The risk of cancer transmission cannot be eliminated because, in every case, the presence of cancer was not known at donation. This information will allow informed consent for prospective recipients. Explantation/excision is likely to benefit recipients with localized cancer, but in transplants other than kidney/pancreas, the benefits should be balanced against the risks of retransplantation. (C) 2012 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.

Página original: http://pdfs.journals.lww.com/transplantjournal/9000/00000/Cancer_Transmission_From_Organ_Donors_Unavoidable.98807.pdf

Tuesday, November 13, 2012

BK Virus Replication and Nephropathy After Alemtuzumab-Induced Kidney Transplantation.


BK Virus Replication and Nephropathy After Alemtuzumab-Induced Kidney Transplantation.

BK virus nephropathy (BKVN) is a recognized cause of graft failure in kidney transplant recipients. There are limited data on the epidemiology of BK virus (BKV) infection after alemtuzumab induction. By clinical protocol, the kidney transplant recipients at our center were screened with BKV plasma PCR monthly for the first 4 months posttransplant then every 2-3 months for 2 years. A single center retrospective cohort study of all kidney transplant recipients from January 2008 to August 2010 was conducted to determine incidence and outcomes of BKV infection. Descriptive statistics and Kaplan-Meier analysis was performed. Of 666 recipients, 250 (37.5%) developed viruria, 80 (12%) developed viremia and 31 (4.7%) developed BKVN at a median of 17, 21 and 30 weeks, respectively. Induction with alemtuzumab did not significantly affect incidence of BKVN. Increased recipient age, African American race, acute graft rejection and CMV infection were significantly associated with the development of BKVN in multivariate analysis. The incidence of BK viruria, viremia and nephropathy was not significantly different among kidney transplant recipients who received alemtuzumab induction compared to patients receiving less potent induction.

Página original: http://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/23136975/BK_Virus_Replication_and_Nephropathy_After_Alemtuzumab_Induced_Kidney_Transplantation_

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Polyomavirus BK Replication in De Novo Kidney Transplant Patients Receiving Tacrolimus or Cyclosporine: A Prospective, Randomized, Multicenter Study.


Polyomavirus BK Replication in De Novo Kidney Transplant Patients Receiving Tacrolimus or Cyclosporine: A Prospective, Randomized, Multicenter Study.

Polyomavirus BK (BKV)-associated nephropathy causes premature kidney transplant (KT) failure. BKV viruria and viremia are biomarkers of disease progression, but associated risk factors are controversial. A total of 682 KT patients receiving basiliximab, mycophenolic acid (MPA), corticosteroids were randomized 1:1 to cyclosporine (CsA) or tacrolimus (Tac). Risk factors were analyzed in 629 (92.2%) patients having at least 2 BKV measurements until month 12 posttransplant. Univariate analysis associated CsA-MPA with lower rates of viremia than Tac-MPA at month 6 (10.6% vs. 16.3%, p = 0.048) and 12 (4.8% vs. 12.1%, p = 0.004) and lower plasma BKV loads at month 12 (3.9 vs. 5.1 log(10) copies/mL; p = 0.028). In multivariate models, CsA-MPA remained associated with less viremia than Tac-MPA at month 6 (OR 0.60; 95% CI 0.36-0.99) and month 12 (OR 0.33; 95% CI 0.16-0.68). Viremia at month 6 was also independently associated with higher steroid exposure until month 3 (OR 1.19 per 1 g), and with male gender (OR 2.49) and recipient age (OR 1.14 per 10 years) at month 12. The data suggest a dynamic risk factor evolution of BKV viremia consisting of higher corticosteroids until month 3, Tac-MPA compared to CsA-MPA at month 6 and Tac-MPA, older age, male gender at month 12 posttransplant.

Página original: http://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/23137180/Polyomavirus_BK_Replication_in_De_Novo_Kidney_Transplant_Patients_Receiving_Tacrolimus_or_Cyclosporine:_A_Prospective_Randomized_Multicenter_Study_

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Estimating Glomerular Filtration Rate in Kidney Transplant Recipients: Performance Over Time of Four Creatinine-Based Formulas


Estimating Glomerular Filtration Rate in Kidney Transplant Recipients: Performance Over Time of Four Creatinine-Based Formulas

imageBackground. The management of kidney transplant recipients requires accurate estimate of glomerular filtration rate (GFR). This study aims at evaluating the performance of four creatinine-based formulas for estimating the GFR (estimated GFR) in this population. Methods. Performances of Cockcroft and Gault formula, Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) simplified formula, Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration formula, and Nankivell formula were assessed compared with inulin clearance taken as the gold standard for measuring GFR (measured GFR). Performances were assessed using the first measurements of GFR obtained in 1249 subjects. How estimated GFR tracks changes in measured GFR over time since transplantation in those patients with repeated measures was also assessed. Results. The MDRD formula provided the best estimate of GFR with a mean bias of −0.5 mL/min/1.73 m2, a standard deviation of bias of 12 mL/min/1.73 m2, and a 30% accuracy at 85%. The MDRD formula also seemed to provide the best performance for estimating GFR, irrespective of age, stage of renal failure, and in people whose body mass index was more than 18.5 kg/m2. This robustness is important in clinical practice. The performance of the four formulas was not modified by the posttransplant period. Conclusion. Even if 30% accuracy was suboptimal in the Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative guidelines, our results, obtained in a large number of patients, lead us to recommend using the MDRD formula to monitor GFR in kidney transplant recipients.

Página original: http://journals.lww.com/transplantjournal/Fulltext/2011/11150/Estimating_Glomerular_Filtration_Rate_in_Kidney.9.aspx

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Friday, November 9, 2012

Ciprofloxacin Prophylaxis in Kidney Transplant Recipients Reduces BK Virus Infection at 3 Months but not at 1 Year


Ciprofloxacin Prophylaxis in Kidney Transplant Recipients Reduces BK Virus Infection at 3 Months but not at 1 Year

Background: BK polyomavirus (BKV) infection remains a significant cause of nephropathy and graft loss. Fluoroquinolones inhibit BKV replication in vitro, and small studies suggest in vivo benefit. A strategy of fluoroquinolone prophylaxis directed specifically against BKV has not been formally tested against a control group in kidney transplant recipients. Methods: We retrospectively compared the impact of a change in antibiotic prophylaxis practice from no BKV prophylaxis (Group 1, n=106, July-December 2009) to BKV prophylaxis with ciprofloxacin 250 mg twice daily for 30 days (Group 2, n=130, January-June 2010) on the rate of BKV infection during the first 12 months after kidney transplantation. Results: Baseline demographics, transplant characteristics, induction immunosuppression, and 1-year incidence of acute rejection were similar between groups. Group 1 had fewer patients on maintenance corticosteroids (65.1% vs. 83.2%, P=0.002). At 3 months, Group 1 had a significantly higher risk of developing BK viremia (0.161 vs. 0.065, P=0.0378) and viruria (0.303 vs. 0.146, P=0.0067) compared with Group 2, but this difference disappeared at 12 months for both viremia (0.297 vs. 0.261, P=0.6061) and viruria (0.437 vs. 0.389, P=0.5363). Adjusting for the difference in steroid use did not change the results. There was a trend toward higher incidence of biopsy-proven BKV nephropathy in Group 1 (4.7% vs. 0.8%, P=0.057). Conclusion: Thirty-day ciprofloxacin prophylaxis in kidney transplant recipients is associated with a lower rate of BKV infection at 3 months but not at 12 months. The long-term effectiveness and optimal duration of fluoroquinolone prophylaxis against BKV infection remain unknown. (C) 2012 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.

Página original: http://pdfs.journals.lww.com/transplantjournal/9000/00000/Ciprofloxacin_Prophylaxis_in_Kidney_Transplant.98855.pdf

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Kidney Graft Survival in Europe and the United States: Strikingly Different Long-term Outcomes


Kidney Graft Survival in Europe and the United States: Strikingly Different Long-term Outcomes

Background: Kidney graft survival has never been systematically compared between Europe and the United States. Methods: Applying period analysis to first deceased-donor (DD) and living-donor kidney grafts from the United Network for Organ Sharing/Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network for the United States and the Collaborative Transplant Study for Europe, we compared overall and age-specific 1-, 5-, and 10-year graft survival for Europeans and white, African, and Hispanic Americans for the 2005 to 2008 period. A Cox regression model was used to adjust for differences in patient characteristics. Results: For the 2005 to 2008 period, 1-year survival for DD grafts was equal (91%) between Europeans and white and Hispanic Americans, whereas it was slightly lower for African Americans (89%). In contrast, overall 5- and 10-year graft survival rates were considerably higher for Europe (77 and 56%, respectively) than for any of the three U.S. populations (whites, 71 and 46%, Hispanic, 73 and 48%, and African American, 62 and 34%). Differences were largest for recipient ages 0 to 17 and 18 to 29 and generally increased beyond 3 to 4 years after transplantation. Survival patterns for living-donor grafts were similar as those seen for DD grafts. Adjusted hazard ratios for graft failure in United Network for Organ Sharing white Americans ranged between 1.5 and 2.3 (all P<0.001) for 2 to 5 years after transplantation, indicating that lower graft survival is not explained by differences in baseline patient characteristics. Conclusions: Long-term kidney graft survival rates are markedly lower in the United States compared with Europe. Identifying actionable factors explaining long-term graft survival differences between Europe and the United States is a high priority for improving long-term graft survival. (C) 2012 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.

Página original: http://pdfs.journals.lww.com/transplantjournal/9000/00000/Kidney_Graft_Survival_in_Europe_and_the_United.98853.pdf

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Intravesical Versus Extravesical Ureteroneocystostomy in Kidney Transplantation: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis


Intravesical Versus Extravesical Ureteroneocystostomy in Kidney Transplantation: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Background: Urologic complications are still a major problem postoperatively with a reported incidence of up to 30%, associated with significant morbidity, mortality, prolonged hospital stay, and high medical costs. To date, there is no evidence favoring either an extravesical or an intravesical approach. The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to determine if an intravesical or an extravesical anastomosis in kidney transplantation is to be preferred. Methods: Comprehensive searches were conducted in PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library. Reference lists were searched manually. The methodology was in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis statement. Two randomized controlled trials and 17 cohort studies were identified. Results: Based on the meta-analysis, outcome was in favor of the extravesical anastomosis. A relative risk of 0.67 (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.48-0.93; P=0.02) for stenosis, 0.55 (95% CI, 0.39-0.80; P=0.001) for leakage, 0.56 (95% CI, 0.41-0.76; P<0.001) for the total number of urologic complications, and 0.41 (95% CI, 0.22-0.76; P=0.005) for hematuria was demonstrated. Conclusion: Based on our results, we conclude that there is evidence in favor of the extravesical ureteroneocystostomy for having a smaller amount of urologic complications in kidney transplantation. (C) 2012 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.

Página original: http://pdfs.journals.lww.com/transplantjournal/9000/00000/Intravesical_Versus_Extravesical.98851.pdf

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Cinacalcet for the Treatment of Hyperparathyroidism in Kidney Transplant Recipients: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis


Cinacalcet for the Treatment of Hyperparathyroidism in Kidney Transplant Recipients: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

Background: Hyperparathyroidism is present in up to 50% of transplant recipients 1 year after transplant, often despite good graft function. Posttransplant patients frequently have hypercalcemia-associated hyperparathyroidism, limiting the role of vitamin D analogues and sometimes requiring parathyroidectomy. Multiple observational studies have investigated treatment of posttransplant hyperparathyroidism with the calcimimetic agent cinacalcet. Methods: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective and retrospective studies from 2004 through January 26, 2012, using MEDLINE. We identified studies evaluating treatment with cinacalcet in renal transplant recipients with hyperparathyroidism. We performed random effects meta-analysis to determine changes in calcium, phosphorus, parathyroid hormone, and serum creatinine. Results: Twenty-one studies with 411 kidney transplant recipients treated with cinacalcet for hyperparathyroidism met inclusion criteria. Patients were treated for 3 to 24 months. By meta-analysis, calcium decreased by 1.14 mg/dL (95% confidence interval, -1.00 to -1.28), phosphorus increased by 0.46 mg/dL (95% confidence interval, 0.28-0.64), parathyroid hormone decreased by 102 pg/mL (95% confidence interval, -69 to -134), and there was no significant change in creatinine (0.02 mg/dL decrease; 95% confidence interval, -0.09 to 0.06). Cinacalcet resulted in hypocalcemia in seven patients. The most common side effect was gastrointestinal intolerance. Conclusion: From nonrandomized studies, cinacalcet appears to be safe and effective for the treatment of posttransplant hyperparathyroidism. Larger observational studies and randomized controlled trials, performed over longer follow-up times and looking at clinical outcomes, are needed to corroborate these findings. (C) 2012 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.

Página original: http://pdfs.journals.lww.com/transplantjournal/9000/00000/Cinacalcet_for_the_Treatment_of.98848.pdf

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Effects of HLA-Matched Blood Transfusion for Patients Awaiting Renal Transplantation


Effects of HLA-Matched Blood Transfusion for Patients Awaiting Renal Transplantation

Background: HLA sensitization in potential renal transplant recipients hinders opportunities of receiving suitable organs. To alleviate this, we sought to determine if supplying closely HLA Class I matched leukodepleted blood would minimize sensitization. Methods: Patients received HLA selected or random units of packed red cells. Selected units were sourced from blood donors included in the British Bone Marrow Registry and had no HLA-A and HLA-B mismatches where available, or alternatively, no HLA antigens with more than five immunogenic triplet mismatches as determined by the HLAMatchmaker algorithm. Posttransfusion antibody screening confirmed development of de novo Class I and Class II HLA-specific IgG antibody(s) or increases in preexisting antibody levels of at least 20%. Results: Thirty-seven and 31 patients received HLA selected (mean, 2.5 units) and random (mean, 3.4 units) blood, respectively. A total of 20 of 37 (54.1%) patients receiving selected units and 10 of 31 (32.3%) patients receiving random units were previously sensitized. No patient receiving HLA selected units demonstrated any change in antibody levels. In patients who received random units, 7 of 31 demonstrated changes in antibody levels with three developing de novo HLA-specific antibodies and four an increase in panel reactive antibody (PRA) of at least 20% (P=0.002). Conclusions: The risk of developing HLA-specific antibody is significantly reduced in renal patients awaiting transplantation when transfused with HLA selected units of blood compared with random units. With planning, access to HLA typed blood is achievable as many blood transfusion centers recruit donors for stem cell donor registries. (C) 2012 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.

Página original: http://pdfs.journals.lww.com/transplantjournal/9000/00000/Effects_of_HLA_Matched_Blood_Transfusion_for.98830.pdf

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Posttransplant Malignancies in Solid Organ Adult Recipients: An Analysis of the U.S. National Transplant Database


Posttransplant Malignancies in Solid Organ Adult Recipients: An Analysis of the U.S. National Transplant Database

Background: De novo posttransplant malignancy (PTM) is a serious complication of transplantation. Incidences may vary among solid organ transplantations (SOTs) and may take to particular screening recommendations and posttransplantation care. Methods: Adult recipients, from the U.S. Organ Procurement Transplant Network/United Network for Organ Sharing database (data as of September 3, 2010), of a primary kidney transplantation (KT), liver transplantation (LT), heart transplantation (HT) or lung transplantation (LuT) performed in the United States between 1999 and 2008 were selected. Multiple-organ recipients and those whose grafts failed within 2 weeks after transplantation were excluded. The incidence of PTM (in 1000 person-years) was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier product-limit method and compared with SOT and the general population. Results: The cohort included 193,905 recipients (123,380 KT; 43,106 LT; 16511 HT; and 10,908 LuT). PTM incidence was 8.03, 11.0, 14.3, and 19.8 in KT, LT, HT, and LuT, respectively. In general, PTM recipients were 3 to 5 years older, mostly whites, and are males in all SOTs. In KT, the type of cancer with the highest incidence was posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD, 1.58%), followed by lung (1.12%), prostate (0.82%), and kidney (0.79%) cancers; in LT, PTLD (2.44%), lung and bronchial (2.18%), primary hepatic (0.91%), and prostate (0.88%) cancers; in HT, lung and bronchial (3.24%) and prostate (3.07%) cancers, and PTLD (2.24%); and in LuT, lung and bronchial cancers (5.94%), PTLD (5.72%), and colorectal cancer (1.38%). PTLD, Kaposi sarcoma, and lung and bronchial cancers were increased in all SOTs, when compared with an older (55- to 59-year-old) population. Conclusions: Cancer incidence is different among solid organ transplantations, and ratios may be higher than those in the 55- to 59-year-old population. (C) 2012 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.

Página original: http://pdfs.journals.lww.com/transplantjournal/9000/00000/Posttransplant_Malignancies_in_Solid_Organ_Adult.98841.pdf

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Tobacco Smoking and Solid Organ Transplantation


Tobacco Smoking and Solid Organ Transplantation

Smoking, both by donors and by recipients, has a major impact on outcomes after organ transplantation. Recipients of smokers' organs are at greater risk of death (lungs hazard ratio [HR], 1.36; heart HR, 1.8; and liver HR, 1.25), extended intensive care stays, and greater need for ventilation. Kidney function is significantly worse at 1 year after transplantation in recipients of grafts from smokers compared with nonsmokers. Clinicians must balance the use of such higher-risk organs with the consequences on waiting list mortality if the donor pool is reduced further by exclusion of such donors. Smoking by kidney transplant recipients significantly increases the risk of cardiovascular events (29.2% vs. 15.4%), renal fibrosis, rejection, and malignancy (HR, 2.56). Furthermore, liver recipients who smoke have higher rates of hepatic artery thrombosis, biliary complications, and malignancy (13% vs. 2%). Heart recipients with a smoking history have increased risk of developing coronary atherosclerosis (21.2% vs. 12.3%), graft dysfunction, and loss after transplantation. Self-reporting of smoking is commonplace but unreliable, which limits its use as a tool for selection of transplant candidates. Despite effective counseling and pharmacotherapy, recidivism rates after transplantation remain high (10-40%). Transplant services need to be more proactive in educating and implementing effective smoking cessation strategies to reduce rates of recidivism and the posttransplantation complications associated with smoking. The adverse impact of smoking by the recipient supports the requirement for a 6-month period of abstinence in lung recipients and cessation before other solid organs. (C) 2012 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.

Página original: http://pdfs.journals.lww.com/transplantjournal/9000/00000/Tobacco_Smoking_and_Solid_Organ_Transplantation.98836.pdf

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Management and Outcome of BK Viremia in Renal Transplant Recipients: A Prospective Single-Center Study


Management and Outcome of BK Viremia in Renal Transplant Recipients: A Prospective Single-Center Study

imageBackground: BK viremia can lead to nephritis, which can progress to irreversible kidney transplant failure. Our prospective study provides management and outcome of BK viremia in renal transplant recipients. Methods: Two hundred forty de novo kidney-only recipients were enrolled from July 2007 to July 2010 and followed for 1 year. Standard immunosuppression with Thymoglobulin/interleukin 2 receptor blocker and mycophenolate mofetil/tacrolimus (Tac)/prednisone was employed. Quantitative BK virus (BKV) DNA surveillance in plasma/urine was performed at 1, 3, 6, 12, and 24 months after transplantation. Patients with significant viremia (defined as ≥10,000 viral copies/mL) underwent renal biopsy and treated with 30% to 50% reduction in doses of both mycophenolate mofetil and Tac without antiviral therapy. The target 12-hr Tac trough levels were lowered to 4 to 6 ng/mL in the significant viremia group, whereas the target levels remained unchanged at 5 to 8 ng/mL for all other groups. Results: Sixty-five patients (27%) developed BK viremia; 28 (12%) of whom had significant viremia. A total of five (21%) of the 23 (of 28) patients who underwent biopsy presented with subclinical BKV nephritis. The mean plasma BKV DNA declined by 98% (range, 76%–100%) at 1 year after peak viremia. Acute cellular rejection seen in four (14%) of 28 patients, responded to bolus steroids. There was no decline in estimated glomerular filtration rate over time from 1 month after transplantation to 1 year after peak viremia (P=0.57). Conclusion: Reduction in immunosuppression alone resulted in the successful resolution of viremia with preservation of renal function and prevention of clinical BKV nephritis and graft loss.

Página original: http://journals.lww.com/transplantjournal/Fulltext/2012/10270/Management_and_Outcome_of_BK_Viremia_in_Renal.6.aspx

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BK Virus Replication and Nephropathy After Alemtuzumab-Induced Kidney Transplantation

BK Virus Replication and Nephropathy After Alemtuzumab-Induced Kidney Transplantation

BK virus nephropathy (BKVN) is a recognized cause of graft failure in kidney transplant recipients. There are limited data on the epidemiology of BK virus (BKV) infection after alemtuzumab induction. By clinical protocol, the kidney transplant recipients at our center were screened with BKV plasma PCR monthly for the first 4 months posttransplant then every 2–3 months for 2 years. A single center retrospective cohort study of all kidney transplant recipients from January 2008 to August 2010 was conducted to determine incidence and outcomes of BKV infection. Descriptive statistics and Kaplan–Meier analysis was performed. Of 666 recipients, 250 (37.5%) developed viruria, 80 (12%) developed viremia and 31 (4.7%) developed BKVN at a median of 17, 21 and 30 weeks, respectively. Induction with alemtuzumab did not significantly affect incidence of BKVN. Increased recipient age, African American race, acute graft rejection and CMV infection were significantly associated with the development of BKVN in multivariate analysis. The incidence of BK viruria, viremia and nephropathy was not significantly different among kidney transplant recipients who received alemtuzumab induction compared to patients receiving less potent induction.

Thursday, November 8, 2012

Concurrent Acute Cellular Rejection Is an Independent Risk Factor for Renal Allograft Failure in Patients With C4d-Positive Antibody-Mediated Rejection

Concurrent Acute Cellular Rejection Is an Independent Risk Factor for Renal Allograft Failure in Patients With C4d-Positive Antibody-Mediated Rejection

Background: Identification of risk factors for renal allograft failure after an episode of acute antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) may help the outcome of this difficult-to-treat complication. Methods: During December 2003 to February 2011, 833 kidney graft recipients underwent 1120 clinically indicated biopsies at our center. We reviewed the biopsy results and identified 87 biopsy specimens from 87 patients positive for the degradation product of complement component 4 (C4d) and acute AMR. We generated Kaplan-Meier survival curves and performed a multivariable analysis using the Cox proportional hazards regression model to identify risk factors for allograft failure after C4d+ acute AMR. Results: Among the 87 patients, 26 had a diagnosis of acute AMR according to the Banff ’09 classification schema, 29 had acute AMR and chronic active AMR, 18 had acute AMR and acute T-cell mediated rejection (TCMR), and 14 had acute AMR, chronic active AMR, and acute TCMR. Kaplan-Meier survival estimates showed that concurrent acute TCMR (P=0.001, Mantel-Cox log-rank test), concurrent chronic active AMR (P=0.03), and time to biopsy (P=0.04) are associated with graft survival. The Cox proportional hazards regression analysis identified that concurrent acute TCMR (hazard ratio, 2.59 [95% confidence interval, 1.21–5.55]; P=0.01) and estimated glomerular filtration rate (hazard ratio, 0.65 [95% confidence interval, 0.48–0.88]; P=0.01) are independent risk factors for allograft loss. Concurrent chronic active AMR or time to biopsy was not associated with graft failure by the multivariable Cox analysis. Conclusions: Our single-center study has elucidated that concurrent acute TCMR in kidney transplant recipients with C4d+ acute AMR is an independent risk factor for graft failure. Level of allograft function at the time of diagnosis was also an independent predictor of graft loss.

Late Calcineurin Inhibitor Withdrawal Prevents Progressive Left Ventricular Diastolic Dysfunction in Renal Transplant Recipients

Late Calcineurin Inhibitor Withdrawal Prevents Progressive Left Ventricular Diastolic Dysfunction in Renal Transplant Recipients

Background: Calcineurin inhibitor (CNI)–based therapy is associated with adverse cardiovascular effects. We examined the effects of late CNI or mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) withdrawal on echocardiographic parameters. Methods: This study was conducted as a substudy of a randomized trial in stable renal transplant recipients who were on a triple CNI-based regimen with prednisone and MMF that evaluated late concentration-controlled withdrawal of CNI or MMF on renal function. A total of 108 patients (age, 52.3±11.5 years; 67% male; at a median of 2.0 years post-transplantation, (interquartile range 1.3–3.3 years); estimated glomerular filtration rate, 57±16 mL/min/1.73 m2; 66% on cyclosporine and 34% on tacrolimus) entered the cardiovascular substudy examining echocardiographic parameters at baseline and 2 years after randomization. In all patients, traditional cardiovascular risk factors were treated according to predefined targets. Results: Late CNI withdrawal prevented progressive development of left ventricular (LV) diastolic dysfunction, as assessed by markers of LV diastolic function (mitral deceleration time and mitral annular e′ velocity). Conversely, in the MMF-withdrawal group, the left atrial volume index (an indicator of chronic LV diastolic dysfunction) was significantly increased at 2 years (from 24.1±6.7 to 27.0±7.0 mL/m2, P<0.05). In addition, CNI withdrawal resulted in a higher proportion of patients achieving the predefined blood pressure targets (<130/85 mm Hg: 41.5% vs. 12.7%, P=0.001) at 2 years while requiring less antihypertensive drugs. Changes in the left atrial volume index were significantly associated with treatment arm (P=0.03) and changes in systolic (P=0.005) and diastolic (P=0.005) blood pressure. Conclusions: Late CNI withdrawal, from a triple-drug regimen in stable renal transplant recipients, prevented progressive deterioration of LV diastolic function and facilitated better blood pressure control.

Early Posttransplantation Hyperglycemia in Kidney Transplant Recipients Is Associated With Overall Long-term Graft Losses

Early Posttransplantation Hyperglycemia in Kidney Transplant Recipients Is Associated With Overall Long-term Graft Losses

Background: The association of early-onset posttransplantation hyperglycemia with long-term renal allograft survival is unknown. Methods: Seventy-one (SD 9) days after transplantation, 1410 first-time kidney transplant recipients without diabetes underwent an oral glucose tolerance test and were observed until primary outcome (graft loss) or December 31, 2008 (median [range], 6.0 years [0.3–13.8 years]). We used multivariable Cox regression analysis adjusted for age, gender, body mass index, creatinine level, donor age, preemptive transplantation, deceased donor, early rejection, and early cytomegalovirus infection to estimate hazard ratios for overall and death-censored allograft survival. Results: A total of 392 (28%) recipients experienced graft failure, and 235 (60%) were induced by death. Each 1 mmol/L increase in 2-hr plasma glucose (2hPG) was associated with 7% and 3% increased risk of unadjusted and adjusted overall graft failure (hazard ratio [95% confidence interval], 1.07 [1.04–1.10] and 1.03 [1.00–1.07]). Fasting plasma glucose was associated with unadjusted but not adjusted overall graft failure (1.09 [1.01–1.18] and 1.07 [0.98–1.17]). Neither 2hPG nor fasting plasma glucose was associated with death-censored graft loss (P=0.578 and P=0.896). Compared with recipients with normal glucose tolerance, recipients with posttransplantation diabetes mellitus showed a tendency toward increased overall multiadjusted graft failure (1.30 [0.98–1.73]). This was not observed in patients with impaired fasting glucose or impaired glucose tolerance. Conclusions: In this study, 2hPG was associated with overall graft failure but not death-censored graft failure. The link between 2hPG and graft failure may be explained by the association with mortality.

Polyomavirus BK Replication in De Novo Kidney Transplant Patients Receiving Tacrolimus or Cyclosporine: A Prospective, Randomized, Multicenter Study

Polyomavirus BK Replication in De Novo Kidney Transplant Patients Receiving Tacrolimus or Cyclosporine: A Prospective, Randomized, Multicenter Study

Polyomavirus BK (BKV)-associated nephropathy causes premature kidney transplant (KT) failure. BKV viruria and viremia are biomarkers of disease progression, but associated risk factors are controversial. A total of 682 KT patients receiving basiliximab, mycophenolic acid (MPA), corticosteroids were randomized 1:1 to cyclosporine (CsA) or tacrolimus (Tac). Risk factors were analyzed in 629 (92.2%) patients having at least 2 BKV measurements until month 12 posttransplant. Univariate analysis associated CsA-MPA with lower rates of viremia than Tac-MPA at month 6 (10.6% vs. 16.3%, p = 0.048) and 12 (4.8% vs. 12.1%, p = 0.004) and lower plasma BKV loads at month 12 (3.9 vs. 5.1 log10copies/mL; p = 0.028). In multivariate models, CsA-MPA remained associated with less viremia than Tac-MPA at month 6 (OR 0.60; 95% CI 0.36–0.99) and month 12 (OR 0.33; 95% CI 0.16–0.68). Viremia at month 6 was also independently associated with higher steroid exposure until month 3 (OR 1.19 per 1 g), and with male gender (OR 2.49) and recipient age (OR 1.14 per 10 years) at month 12. The data suggest a dynamic risk factor evolution of BKV viremia consisting of higher corticosteroids until month 3, Tac-MPA compared to CsA-MPA at month 6 and Tac-MPA, older age, male gender at month 12 posttransplant.

Wednesday, October 31, 2012

A Randomized Pharmacokinetic Study of Generic Tacrolimus Versus Reference Tacrolimus in Kidney Transplant Recipients

A Randomized Pharmacokinetic Study of Generic Tacrolimus Versus Reference Tacrolimus in Kidney Transplant Recipients

Pharmacokinetic analyses comparing generic tacrolimus preparations versus the reference drug in kidney transplant patients are lacking. A prospective, multicenter, open-label, randomized, two-period (14 days per period), two-sequence, crossover and steady-state pharmacokinetic study was undertaken to compare twice-daily generic tacrolimus (Sandoz) versus reference tacrolimus (Prograf®) in stable renal transplant patients. AUC0-12h and peak concentration (Cmax) were calculated from 12 h pharmacokinetic profiles at the end of each period (days 14 and 28). Of 71 patients enrolled, 68 provided evaluable pharmacokinetic data. The ratios of geometric means were 1.02 (90% CI 97-108%, p = 0.486) for AUC0-12h and 1.09 (90% CI 101-118%, p = 0.057) for Cmax. Mean (SD) C0 was 7.3(1.8) ng/mL for generic tacrolimus versus 7.0(2.1) ng/mL for reference tacrolimus based on data from days 14 and 28. Correlations between 12 h trough levels and AUC were r = 0.917 for generic tacrolimus and r = 0.887 for reference drug at day 28. These data indicate that generic tacrolimus (Sandoz) has a similar pharmacokinetic profile to the reference drug and is bioequivalent in kidney transplant recipients according to US Food and Drug Administration and European Medicines Agency guidelines.

Pulsatile Pump Decreases Risk of Delayed Graft Function in Kidneys Donated After Cardiac Death

Pulsatile Pump Decreases Risk of Delayed Graft Function in Kidneys Donated After Cardiac Death

Organ storage techniques have been under scrutiny to determine the best preservation method, particularly in donation after cardiac death (DCD) kidneys. Conflicting literature on the benefit of pulsatile perfusion (PP) over cold storage (CS) warrants further investigation. We analyzed the risk of developing delayed graft function (DGF) in recipients of DCD and donation after brain death (DBD) kidneys undergoing PP or CS. We stratified on basis of cold ischemic time (CIT) to determine the interaction of preservation techniques, CIT and DCD kidneys on developing DGF. Of 54 136 recipients, 4923 received DCD kidneys of which 3330 (67%) underwent PP. Of 49 213 DBD recipients, 7531 (15%) underwent PP. DCD had a higher risk of DGF versus DBD (adjusted odds ratio, AOR 3.2; 3.0-3.5). PP kidneys had less DGF (AOR 0.59; 0.56-0.63) compared to CS. Interaction models of method by donor type referenced to PP/DBD revealed CS/DBD kidneys had higher DGF (AOR 1.8; 1.7-1.9), whereas CS/DCD kidneys had the highest risk of DGF (AOR 5.01; 4.43-5.67). Even though suggestive for a benefit of PP on DGF, this retrospective analysis cannot address whether this is an intrinsic effect of PP or is associated with the logistics of PP such as discard of DCD kidneys based on pump parameters.

Improved Renal Function After Early Conversion From a Calcineurin Inhibitor to Everolimus: a Randomized Trial in Kidney Transplantation

Improved Renal Function After Early Conversion From a Calcineurin Inhibitor to Everolimus: a Randomized Trial in Kidney Transplantation

In an open-label, multicenter trial, de novo kidney transplant recipients at low to medium immunological risk were randomized at week 7 posttransplant to remain on CsA (n = 100, controls) or convert to everolimus (n = 102), both with enteric-coated mycophenolate sodium and corticosteroids. The primary endpoint, change in measured GFR (mGFR) from week 7 to month 12, was significantly greater with everolimus than controls: 4.9 (11.8) mL/min versus 0.0 (12.9) mL/min (p = 0.012; analysis of covariance [ANCOVA]). Per protocol analysis demonstrated a more marked difference: an increase of 8.7 (11.2) mL/min with everolimus versus a decrease of 0.4 (12.0) mL/min in controls (p < 0.001; ANCOVA). There were no differences in graft or patient survival. The 12-month incidence of biopsy-proven acute rejection (BPAR) was 27.5% (n = 28) with everolimus and 11.0% (n = 11) in controls (p = 0.004). All but two episodes of BPAR in each group were mild. Adverse events occurred in 95.1% of everolimus patients and 90.0% controls (p = 0.19), with serious adverse events in 53.9% and 38.0%, respectively (p = 0.025). Discontinuation because of adverse events was more frequent with everolimus (25.5%) than controls (3.0%; p = 0.030). In conclusion, conversion from CsA to everolimus at week 7 after kidney transplantation was associated with a greater improvement in mGFR at month 12 versus CNI-treated controls but discontinuations and BPAR were more frequent.

Monday, October 15, 2012

Value of Routine Voiding Cystourethrography After Renal Transplantation.

Value of Routine Voiding Cystourethrography After Renal Transplantation.
The impact of vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) on renal allograft outcomes is debatable, with small cohort studies reporting controversial results. The objective of this retrospective study was to evaluate long-term clinical effects of early VUR in a large cohort of kidney transplant patients. Posttransplantation voiding cystourethrography was used to evaluate 646 consecutive kidney transplant recipients before discharge. The study endpoints included VUR grade, death-censored graft or patient survival, renal function, proteinuria and occurrence of urinary tract infections (UTIs). Of the 646 recipients, 263 (40.7%) were diagnosed with VUR. VUR grade II was most common (19.8%), followed by grades III (10.2%), I (7.9%) and IV (2.8%). VUR was less common in transplantations performed by experienced compared to inexperienced surgeons (36% vs. 48%; p = 0.004). VUR did not affect death-censored graft or patient survival and was not associated with proteinuria or occurrence of UTIs. Patients with VUR had a lower eGFR at 1 year after transplantation than did patients without VUR (60 vs. 52 mL/min/1.73 m(2) ; p = 0.02), although this difference was not observed at 3 and 5 years after transplantation. We conclude that early VUR, a common finding among renal transplant patients, may not have a meaningful impact on long-term transplant outcomes.

Wednesday, September 26, 2012

Wound Healing Complications and the Use of Mammalian Target of Rapamycin Inhibitors in Kidney Transplantation: A Critical Review of the Literature

Wound Healing Complications and the Use of Mammalian Target of Rapamycin Inhibitors in Kidney Transplantation: A Critical Review of the Literature

Surgical complications, including events such as lymphocele and urological complications that affect wound healing, are reported with an incidence of 15% to 32% after kidney transplantation. The experience of the surgeon and comorbidities play an important role in determining the risk of such complications occurring. Since the introduction of the inosine 5′-monophosphate dehydrogenase inhibitors (mycophenolate mofetil) to the immunosuppressive armamentarium, replacing the antimetabolite prodrug azathioprine, reports have associated certain forms of wound healing complications (wound dehiscence, impaired healing, lymphocele, and incisional hernia) with the use of these agents. When mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors (sirolimus, everolimus) became available, these findings were observed increasingly, particularly in direct comparisons with inosine 5′-monophosphate dehydrogenase inhibitors. The purpose of this article was to review the reported incidence of wound healing complications from randomized clinical trials that investigated the use of sirolimus- and everolimus-based treatment regimens in de novo kidney transplantation and the information available from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration database. The clinical trials included were primarily identified using biomedical literature database searches, with additional studies added at the authors’ discretion. This review summarizes these studies to consider whether modern mTOR inhibitor–based immunosuppressive regimens exert and affect wound healing after kidney transplantation.

Sunday, September 23, 2012

Antithymocyte Globulin Induction in Living Donor Renal Transplant Recipients: Final Report of the TAILOR Registry

Antithymocyte Globulin Induction in Living Donor Renal Transplant Recipients: Final Report of the TAILOR Registry

Background: The Thymoglobulin Antibody Immunosuppression in Living Donor Recipients registry was established to assess clinical experience with rabbit antithymocyte globulin (rATG; Thymoglobulin) in living donor renal transplant recipients. Methods: From 2003 to 2008, US transplant centers prospectively entered information on patients who received rATG induction. In addition to standard United Network for Organ Sharing registry data elements, information was collected regarding immunosuppression, viral prophylaxis, acute rejection, and adverse events. Results: Data on 2322 patients from 49 transplant centers were enrolled and met inclusion criteria for analysis. Patient and graft survival were 99.3% and 99.0% at 6 months and 98.4% and 98.2% at 12 months as recorded in Thymoglobulin Antibody Immunosuppression in Living Donor Recipients registry and were 91.5% and 83.2% at 5 years by Kaplan-Meier estimates based on linked United Network for Organ Sharing registry records. Freedom from rejection was 93.6% through 5 years. Mean rATG cumulative dose was 5.29 mg/kg. More than one-third of patients (37.6%) were steroid-free at discharge, and nearly half of patients (48%) were steroid-free at 12 months. Before discharge, 3.2% experienced serious adverse events, with 11 events (0.005%) reported as possibly or probably related to rATG. Incidence of cytomegalovirus infection was 4.2% at 12 months, and 99.1% of patients were posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder–free through 5 years. Conclusions: rATG induction in living donor renal transplantation is safe and associated with a low incidence of acute rejection and posttransplantation complications.

Tacrolimus-Based, Steroid-Free Regimens in Renal Transplantation: 3-Year Follow-Up of the ATLAS Trial

Tacrolimus-Based, Steroid-Free Regimens in Renal Transplantation: 3-Year Follow-Up of the ATLAS Trial

Background: Long-term use of corticosteroids is associated with considerable morbidity, including cardiovascular and metabolic adverse effects. Methods: This study evaluated the long-term efficacy and safety of two steroid-free regimens compared with a triple immunosuppressive therapy in renal transplant recipients. This was a 3-year follow-up to a 6-month, open-label, randomized, multicenter study. Results: Data from 3 years were available for 421 (93.3%) of 451 patients in the original intent-to-treat population (143 tacrolimus/basiliximab [Tac/Bas], 139 tacrolimus/mycophenolate mofetil [Tac/MMF], and 139 tacrolimus/MMF/steroids [triple therapy]). In the time interval from 6 months to 3 years after transplantation, the incidence of biopsy-proven acute rejection was low and similar (Tac/Bas, 2.1%; Tac/MMF, 2.2%; triple therapy, 2.2%); Most rejection episodes occurred during the first 6 months of the study. Graft survival was high (Kaplan-Meier estimates: 92.7%, 92.5%, and 92.5%), as was patient survival (93.1%, 96.4%, and 97.0%). There were 10 graft losses (n=2, 4, and 4) and 12 patient deaths (n=5, 2, and 5). Renal function was well preserved throughout the study and similar between groups. There was a trend toward improved cardiovascular risk factors in the Tac/Bas group, including reduced total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and lower new-onset insulin use. There were no between-group differences in the incidence or type of adverse events. Conclusion: Higher rates of acute rejection early in treatment were seen with the steroid-free regimens, but this did not translate into poorer long-term outcomes, such as graft and patient survival and renal function. A trend for a more favorable cardiovascular risk profile was observed for steroid-free immunosuppression with Tac/Bas.

Saturday, September 22, 2012

A Comprehensive Review of Everolimus Clinical Reports: A New Mammalian Target of Rapamycin Inhibitor

A Comprehensive Review of Everolimus Clinical Reports: A New Mammalian Target of Rapamycin Inhibitor

As new immunosuppressive agents are introduced to the market, clinicians are faced with the daunting task of sifting through the published literature to decide the value that the agent will add to their own practice. We often must extrapolate information provided through study in other solid-organ transplantation populations than our specific area of interest as we interpret the results and outcomes. With these challenges in mind, this compilation of published work for the newest mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor everolimus (Certican; Novartis Pharmaceuticals, Hanover, NJ) (Zortress; Novartis Pharmaceuticals, Basel, Switzerland) is intended to provide a concise but thorough presentation of available literature so that the reader who may be unfamiliar with the agent can make their own judgment. Both Ovid and PubMed search engines were queried with a particular focus on high-impact articles noted in the Web of Science or Citation Index. Work described solely in abstract or case report form was excluded, as well as meta-analyses or those that were editorial or commentary in nature. Included were publications presented using the English language that described adult human subjects who received a heart, lung, kidney, or liver allograft. The goal of this strategy was to allow for the inclusion of pertinent literature in an unbiased fashion. Tables are provided that outline trial specific information, leaving a discussion of major outcomes to the text of the review. (C) 2012 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.

Sunday, September 16, 2012

Renal grafts from anti-hepatitis B core-positive donors: a quantitative review of the literature

Renal grafts from anti-hepatitis B core-positive donors: a quantitative review of the literature


Organ shortage is a major problem in transplantation. The use of organs from hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-negative and hepatitis B core antibody (HBcAb)-positive donors could significantly increase the donor pool. However, little information is available about the impact of HBcAb status of renal donors on viral transmission to recipients. To address this issue, the present quantitative review of relevant studies has been performed.
Electronic databases including Medline, EMBASE, ISI, and Scopus were systematically searched for studies that evaluated risk of hepatitis B virus (HBV) transmission through renal transplantation from HBsAg-/HBcAb+ donors. Eligible studies were identified according to predefined criteria. The final outcome was one of HBV markers seroconversion defined as HBsAg, hepatitis B surface antibody (HBsAb), or HBcAb detection in previously seronegative end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients after transplantation, and without other identified major sources of infection.
Nine studies with 1385 eligible kidney recipients were included. In total, 45 subjects showed seroconversion of HBV markers as follows: HBsAg (n = 4) (0.28%; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.006; 0.57), HBcAb (n = 32), HBsAb (n = 5), and either HBcAb or HBsAb (n = 4). The total rate of seroconversion after renal transplantation was calculated to be 3.24% (95% CI: 2.31–4.18).
Our review indicates that the risk of HBV transmission from HBcAb-positive kidney donors is extremely low. Therefore, kidneys from these donors can be transplanted safely into ESRD patients.