Management of kidney transplant recipients (KTRs) with suspected acute rejection (AR) ultimately relies on kidney biopsy; however, noninvasive tests predicting nonrejection would help avoid unnecessary biopsy. AR involves recruitment of leukocytes avid for fluorodeoxyglucose F18 (18F-FDG), thus 18F-FDG positron emission tomography (PET) coupled with computed tomography (CT) may noninvasively distinguish nonrejection from AR. From January 2013 to February 2015, we prospectively performed 32 18F-FDG PET/CT scans in 31 adult KTRs with suspected AR who underwent transplant biopsy. Biopsies were categorized into four groups: normal (n = 8), borderline (n = 10), AR (n = 8), or other (n = 6, including 3 with polyoma BK nephropathy). Estimated GFR was comparable in all groups. PET/CT was performed 201 ± 18 minutes after administration of 3.2 ± 0.2 MBq/kg of 18F-FDG, before any immunosuppression change. Mean standard uptake values (SUVs) of both upper and lower renal poles were measured. Mean SUVs reached 1.5 ± 0.2, 1.6 ± 0.3, 2.9 ± 0.8, and 2.2 ± 1.2 for the normal, borderline, AR, and other groups, respectively. One-way analysis of variance demonstrated a significant difference of mean SUVs among groups. A positive correlation between mean SUV and acute composite Banff score was found, with r2 = 0.49. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.93, with 100% sensitivity and 50% specificity using a mean SUV threshold of 1.6. In conclusion, 18F-FDG PET/CT may help noninvasively prevent avoidable transplant biopsies in KTRs with suspected AR.
Shared via my feedly reader